Friday, July 19, 2024

The Impact of Parental Alienation on Child Custody and Parenting Time

Feature Article: Understanding Parental Alienation and its Impact on Child Custody

Divorce and child custody battles can be one of the most emotionally challenging things any parent can go through. However, when parental alienation comes into play, it can make the situation even more difficult. Parental alienation occurs when one parent manipulates and turns the child against the other parent. This behavior can significantly impact family law cases, especially when it comes to child custody and parenting time decisions.

The Impact of Parental Alienation on Child Custody

It’s no secret that child custody disputes can be extremely contentious. When one parent is trying to turn the child against the other parent, the situation can become even more challenging. Parental alienation can ultimately result in the loss of custody rights for the alienated parent and can cause severe emotional and psychological damage to the child. Additionally, parental alienation can cause the child to resent and become estranged from their other biological relatives, such as grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins.

Identifying Parental Alienation

Parental alienation can be hard to identify, which makes it challenging to prevent and address. Typically, the alienator uses subtle manipulation and behaviors that are difficult to notice, such as making negative comments about the other parent in front of the child or ignoring any positive things the child has to say about the other parent. Other behaviors may include putting the child in the middle of disputes, making false allegations about the other parent, and brainwashing the child against the other parent.

The Legal Implications of Parental Alienation

Parental alienation is taken seriously by the courts, as it can significantly impact the child's well-being, as well as the alienated parent's relationship with their child. While the legal remedies for parental alienation vary from state to state, many family courts consider it when making child custody decisions. Courts can limit or entirely remove custody and visitation rights of a parent found guilty of parental alienation. Additionally, the court may order counseling for the family to address the issue and help restore the damaged relationships between the child and the alienated parent.

Recovering from Parental Alienation

Recovery from parental alienation is not easy, and it may take a lot of time and effort to restore the relationship between the alienated parent and the child. However, it is essential to remember that recovery is possible. The first step in the process is to identify the problem and seek help. There are many resources available for families struggling with parental alienation, including counseling and mediation services. Additionally, the affected parent should consider documenting any instances of parental alienation that they notice and bringing them to the attention of their attorney or the court.

Preventing Parental Alienation

The best way for parents to prevent parental alienation is to put the child's well-being first and focus on maintaining a healthy relationship between the child and both parents. It's essential to avoid speaking negatively about the other parent in front of the child and never using the child as a means to communicate with the other parent. Additionally, maintaining a consistent and predictable parenting schedule can provide the child with stability and reduce the likelihood of emotional manipulation.


Parental alienation is a severe issue in child custody disputes and can cause substantial harm to both the child and the alienated parent. Understanding parental alienation, its legal implications, and how to prevent it, is crucial for parents facing these challenges. Recovery from parental alienation is possible, but it requires time, effort, and support. If you find yourself struggling with parental alienation, it's crucial to seek help and resources that can assist you during this challenging time.


Wednesday, July 3, 2024

10 Essential Elements Often Overlooked in Parenting Plans

Feature Article

Creating a Comprehensive Co-Parenting Plan: 10 Crucial Elements You May Be Overlooking

Divorce or separation can be emotionally challenging and, at times, downright exhausting, particularly when children are involved. It can be difficult to navigate the complexities of a custody arrangement while ensuring that the child’s needs are being met. A parenting plan can be an effective way to manage a child's needs post-divorce or separation. A comprehensive co-parenting plan is one that covers all of the essential elements to ensure that both parents and, most importantly, the child, are on the same page. In this feature article, we will discuss ten crucial elements that parents often overlook when creating a co-parenting plan.

The Parenting Plan Foundation

Before we delve into the crucial elements, it's essential to understand what a parenting plan is and what it entails. A parenting plan is a written document that outlines how parents will care for their child post-separation or divorce. It covers topics such as parenting time, decision-making, communication, and other relevant matters. A comprehensive co-parenting plan is a parenting plan that covers all essential elements to ensure that both parents are on the same page and that the child's needs are prioritized.

Element 1: Parenting Time

Parenting time refers to the time each parent spends with the child. It's important to have a detailed schedule that shows when the child will be with each parent, including holidays and special events. The parenting time schedule should consider the child's age, development, and needs. The schedule should also be flexible and adjustable to accommodate changes in the child's needs or the parents' schedules.

Element 2: Decision-Making

Decision-making refers to the authority to make important decisions about the child's life, such as education, healthcare, religious upbringing, and extracurricular activities. Parents can choose between sole decision-making authority or shared decision-making authority depending on their circumstances. Both parents should outline their wishes concerning decision-making and how they plan to arrive at mutual decisions.

Element 3: Communication and Dispute Resolution

Effective communication is essential in any co-parenting relationship. Parents should define how they will communicate with each other, including the medium, frequency, and method of communication. They should also outline a dispute resolution process that prioritizes the child's best interests and helps resolve conflicts amicably.

Element 4: Child Support

Child support refers to the financial support given to a child to meet their needs. Parents should outline how they will pay for the child's expenses and how they will split costs. This should include costs such as medical care, education, extracurricular activities, transportation, and more. The plan should also consider any potential changes in the child's needs and financial circumstances.

Element 5: Transportation

Transportation is often an overlooked element in co-parenting plans. It's essential to have a detailed plan outlining how the child will be transported between the parents' homes, school, and other activities. The transportation plan should factor in practical considerations such as distance, schedules, and transportation availability.

Element 6: Extended Family and Third-Party Access

Family and friends play a crucial role in a child's life. It's essential to have a plan outlining how and when extended family members and third parties can access the child, including grandparents, aunts, and uncles, and other close family members. The plan should consider the child's safety, wellbeing, and happiness.

Element 7: Special Needs Requirements

Children with special needs require additional support and accommodations. Parents should outline the child's special needs and how they plan to meet those needs. This should include matters such as appointments, treatments, and any special equipment or accommodations that may be required.

In conclusion, co-parenting can be a challenge, but a comprehensive co-parenting plan can be an effective way to reduce conflict, prioritize the child's needs, and ensure that both parents are on the same page. Understanding the essential elements of a co-parenting plan, such as parenting time, decision-making, communication and dispute resolution, child support, transportation, extended family, special needs requirements, and more, can help you create an effective plan for your family.

For more information and professional legal advice on creating a comprehensive co-parenting plan, visit


Thursday, June 27, 2024

Penalties and Defenses for Resisting Arrest During a DUI Stop in Arizona

Investigative Article

In a world where driving under the influence (DUI) is a serious issue, resisting arrest when pulled over by a peace officer can result in harsh penalties. In Arizona, the legal system takes the issue of resisting arrest seriously, as outlined in Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) 13-2508. As a result, individuals who resist arrest during a DUI stop face possible jail time, hefty fines, and more. This article will investigate the penalties and defenses for resisting arrest during a DUI stop, and what individuals can do to protect themselves against facing these consequences.

The Law in Arizona

Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) 13-2508 outlines the state's definition of resisting arrest. Simply put, it's when a person intentionally prevents or attempts to prevent a peace officer, acting under official authority, from effecting an arrest. This can be done by using or threatening to use physical force against the officer or another, or by creating a substantial risk of causing physical injury to the officer or another. This definition means that resisting arrest can occur during any arrest situation, including DUI stops.

Possible Penalties for Resisting Arrest During a DUI Stop

Resisting arrest during a DUI stop can result in serious penalties. The severity of the penalties will depend on the circumstances surrounding the incident. Penalties for resisting arrest may include:

  • Class 1 misdemeanor charges
  • Up to six months in jail
  • Fines up to $2,500
  • Probation
  • Court-mandated counseling or classes

In situations where resisting arrest results in bodily harm to the peace officer or other individuals, felony charges may be involved. In such cases, individuals could face up to several years in prison, hefty fines, and other consequences.

Possible Defenses for Resisting Arrest During a DUI Stop

Individuals who are facing charges for resisting arrest during a DUI stop may be able to use certain defenses to protect themselves against these allegations. Possible defenses may include:

  • Self-defense: This defense may be a possible argument if the accused believed that the officer was using excessive force or if they were acting in self-defense against the officer's physical force.
  • Unlawful arrest: If law enforcement officers did not have a legitimate reason to stop the individual, the accused may have a valid defense.
  • Coercion or intimidation: If an officer used threats, coercion, intimidation, or other illegal means to effect the arrest, the accused may be able to use this defense.

It's important to note that resisting arrest can result in serious charges, and the assistance of an attorney is crucial to develop an effective defense strategy.

What to Do If You're Facing Charges for Resisting Arrest During a DUI Stop

If you're facing charges for resisting arrest during a DUI stop, it's essential to take the allegations seriously. You should seek legal representation from a skilled criminal defense attorney who can help you build a robust defense strategy. The attorney can evaluate the circumstances of the incident and determine if any defenses may be available, negotiate with prosecutors or argue your case in court. They can also counsel you on plea agreements, diversion programs, or other possible strategies to avoid the harshest penalties of the charges.


Resisting arrest during a DUI stop is a serious offense that can have significant consequences in Arizona. The penalties for such an offense can include jail time, expensive fines, and negative impacts on employment and personal life. However, several defenses may be available to the accused, with the assistance of a skilled criminal defense attorney. By working with an attorney, the accused can develop a strong defense strategy and increase their chances of protecting themselves against the charges. Ultimately, If you or someone you know is facing charges for Resisting Arrest During a DUI Stop, it's essential to seek the counsel of an experienced criminal defense attorney immediately.

Resisting Arrest During DUI- Possible Penalties and Defense Strategies

Monday, June 24, 2024

The Importance of Temporary Orders in Family Court: An Overview

The Importance of Temporary Orders in Family Court

Family law matters can be complex and emotionally challenging, especially when it involves children and significant assets. Divorce, separation, and child custody battles can drag on for months or even years, leaving all parties involved in limbo and without a clear plan or direction. Fortunately, temporary orders can provide stability and clarity during this interim period, allowing individuals to make informed decisions about their future.

What Are Temporary Orders in Family Court?

Temporary orders are court orders that are put in place before a final decision is made in a family law case. They are designed to provide a framework for parties to outline their plans and arrangements while their case is pending. Temporary orders can cover a range of issues, including child custody, child support, visitation, and spousal support.

Temporary orders can be granted by the court upon request or at a hearing. They usually last until the final judgment of the case, or until a new order replaces them. The purpose of temporary orders is to protect the parties' rights, maintain the status quo, and ensure that the needs of all dependents involved are met.

Why Are Temporary Orders Important?

Temporary orders are critical in providing stability to parties during the interim period. They allow individuals to plan for their future, maintain their current lifestyle, and potentially avoid financial or other hardships. Additionally, temporary orders can help to minimize conflicts and ensure that all parties involved are treated fairly and equitably.

Without temporary orders, parties may be forced to navigate complicated legal issues without any guidance or support. This can lead to additional stress, confusion, and financial burden. Temporary orders, on the other hand, provide a clear structure for parties to follow and can help them avoid making costly mistakes that can have long-term repercussions.

How Can You Secure Temporary Orders?

In family law cases, temporary orders can be requested at any time before a final judgment is entered. Securing temporary orders typically involves filing a motion with the court requesting the specific relief sought. The motion must be supported by a detailed statement of the facts, accompanied by relevant evidence.

It's important to note that temporary orders are often negotiated between the parties, with the assistance of their respective attorneys. This collaborative approach can be beneficial for all parties involved, as it allows them to work together to reach an amicable solution.

The Benefits of Securing Temporary Orders

Securing temporary orders has numerous benefits for individuals navigating the complex world of family law. Some of the key advantages include:

1. Provides Stability During the Interim Period

Temporary orders provide a clear framework for parties to follow, giving them stability during this difficult time. This can help to minimize conflict and ensure that everyone involved is treated fairly and equitably.

2. Protects Your Rights and Interests

Temporary orders can protect your rights and interests during the interim period, ensuring that you have a voice in the proceedings and that your needs are met.

3. Helps You Make Informed Decisions About Your Future

Temporary orders can help you make informed decisions about your future, allowing you to plan for your life post-divorce or separation.

4. Avoids Financial or Other Hardships

Temporary orders can help you avoid financial or other hardships that can occur during the interim period, such as losing access to assets or being unable to support yourself or your children.


Temporary orders play a crucial role in family law cases, providing stability and clarity during a difficult and emotional time. They help to protect the rights and interests of all parties involved, ensure that the needs of dependents are met, and facilitate informed decision-making about the future. If you are navigating complex family law matters and need a structured approach to manage the interim period effectively, securing temporary orders can be a strategic step.

For more information about temporary orders in family court, contact CHM Law at


Sunday, June 23, 2024

Understanding Arizona's Indecent Exposure Laws: ARS 13-1402 and Penalties

Investigative Article: The Truth About Indecent Exposure Laws in Arizona

Indecent exposure is a term that is often tossed around in pop culture, but it is a serious crime. Understanding the laws surrounding indecent exposure is important for individuals and communities alike. In this investigative article, we will delve into the indecent exposure laws in Arizona, as defined by ARS 13-1402, and explore the legal defenses for these charges.

The Definition of Indecent Exposure in Arizona

According to ARS 13-1402, indecent exposure involves the exposure of private parts in public or in the presence of others. The act must be done recklessly, with the awareness that it would likely offend or alarm. To be convicted of indecent exposure, the prosecution must prove that the offender knowingly exposed themselves with the intent to cause alarm or distress to others.

Penalties for indecent exposure can range from class 1 misdemeanors to class 3 felonies, depending on the victim's age and the offender's history. Factors like the location of the offense and prior convictions can aggravate the charges. In Arizona, the age of consent is 18, and indecent exposure to a person under the age of 15 is considered a class 5 felony.

Related Offenses

While indecent exposure is a serious crime, there are related crimes that are also punishable under Arizona law. Public sexual indecency involves engaging in sexual acts in public and is punishable under ARS 13-1403. This offense is also classed as a misdemeanor or felony, depending on the victim's age and the offender's history.

Legal Defenses for Indecent Exposure Charges

Individuals facing indecent exposure charges have legal defenses available to them. The most common defenses are lack of intent, mistaken identity, and insufficient evidence.

One of the most effective defenses against indecent exposure charges is the lack of intent. The prosecution must prove that the offender had the intent to cause alarm or distress to others. If the offender had no intention of exposing themselves or if the act was accidental, then they may be found not guilty.

Mistaken identity is another defense available to individuals facing indecent exposure charges. It is not uncommon for witnesses or victims to incorrectly identify the offender. In such cases, it is crucial to have an experienced criminal defense attorney who can present a strong case to support the defendant's innocence.

Finally, the lack of sufficient evidence can also lead to a dismissal of an indecent exposure charge. Without solid evidence, a case cannot be made against the defendant. In these situations, a criminal defense attorney can ensure that the charges are dismissed and the defendant's rights are protected.

Exclusions from Indecent Exposure Laws

It is important to note that there are exclusions to indecent exposure laws. Breastfeeding in public is explicitly excluded from being considered indecent exposure under Arizona law. This means that women who breastfeed in public cannot be charged with indecent exposure.

Why Seek Experienced Legal Representation

Individuals facing indecent exposure charges should seek experienced legal representation as soon as possible. Criminal defense attorneys specializing in sex crimes can provide a strong defense and protect one's rights. The attorneys at Colburn Hintze Maletta have extensive experience defending individuals facing indecent exposure charges.

In many cases, individuals facing indecent exposure charges are not guilty or overcharged. A skilled lawyer can assess the case and determine the best legal strategy. At Colburn Hintze Maletta, we offer a free consultation to individuals facing indecent exposure charges. Our attorneys fight tirelessly for our clients, ensuring that their rights are protected and that they receive the best possible outcome.


Indecent exposure is a serious crime that carries severe penalties. Understanding the laws surrounding indecent exposure is important for individuals and communities alike. If you or someone you know is facing indecent exposure charges, it is important to seek legal representation from experienced criminal defense attorneys. At Colburn Hintze Maletta, our attorneys have extensive experience defending individuals facing indecent exposure charges. For more information about indecent exposure laws in Arizona, visit


Saturday, June 22, 2024

Arizona Felony DUI with Minor in the Car: Definition, Penalties, Related Offenses, and Defenses.

Feature Article: Understanding Arizona's Felony DUI with Minor in the Car Law


Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a criminal offense in every state in America. However, Arizona takes DUI offenses involving minors in the car very seriously. If you or someone you know has been charged with a felony DUI with a minor in the car, it is crucial to understand the law, penalties, and your defense options.

What is a Felony DUI with a Minor in the Car?

Arizona Revised Statute 28-1383 makes it illegal to operate a motor vehicle under the influence of drugs or alcohol with a passenger under the age of 15. If you are arrested for violating this law, you will face severe legal consequences, including felony charges, fines, jail time, and the suspension of your driving privileges.

Penalties for a Felony DUI

If you are convicted of a felony DUI with a minor in the car, you face mandatory minimum sentences. The first offense has a minimum prison sentence of four months, while the second and third offenses have minimum prison sentences of eight and ten months, respectively. The maximum penalties for a felony DUI can include a fine of up to $150,000, prison time, community service, and counseling programs.

Common Defenses for a Felony DUI with a Minor in the Car

If you are facing charges for a felony DUI with a minor in the car, it is crucial to seek the advice of an experienced DUI defense attorney. Some of the common defenses that lawyers may use to fight for your freedom include challenging the credibility of the arresting officer, questioning the accuracy of the breathalyzer and blood tests, and arguing that the actions of the defendant did not place the minor in danger.

Related Offenses

In addition to a felony DUI with a minor in the car, there are several related offenses that you may be charged with. These include child endangerment, reckless driving, and vehicular manslaughter. Depending on the circumstances of your case, the prosecutor may add these offenses to your charges, increasing the severity of your legal consequences.

Who to Contact if You Face Felony DUI Charges?

If you or someone you know is facing charges for a felony DUI with a minor in the car, it is crucial to seek the advice of an experienced and knowledgeable DUI defense attorney. At Kolsrud Law Offices, our dedicated lawyers will fight zealously for your rights and freedom. We will provide you with a strong defense strategy, evaluating the evidence against you, identifying any weaknesses in the prosecution, and advocating for your rights in court.


Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol can have devastating consequences, especially when there is a minor in the car. If you are facing felony DUI charges, it is essential to understand the law, your legal consequences, and the defense options available to you. We strongly recommend that you seek the advice of experienced lawyers who can help you navigate the complex legal system and defend your rights.

Arizona Felony DUI with Minor in the Car ARS 28-1383

If you need legal representation for felony DUI charges with a minor in the car, contact Kolsrud Law Offices today at Felony, Minor.

Friday, June 21, 2024

Options for Dealing with an Ex who Refuses to Sell the Family Home

Investigative Article: What to Do When Your Ex-Partner Refuses to Sell the Shared Property

Divorce or the end of a long-term relationship can be a complicated process. One of the most challenging aspects of this procedure is the division of assets. It is especially tricky when dealing with shared property, such as a house. It is not uncommon for one partner to refuse to sell the house, leading to a deadlock in the separation process. So, what should you do when your ex-partner refuses to sell the shared property, causing a dispute between the two of you?

Background: Factors That Make the Family Home a Contentious Point During Separation

One of the most significant assets in a relationship is the family home. It is the place where the family has spent the happiest moments, and the idea of selling it can be tough to swallow. However, several factors make selling the family home after separation necessary:

  • Inability to afford mortgage payments
  • Need to split the assets after a divorce
  • Maintain the standard of living
  • Prevent negative effects on children

When one partner denies the sale, it becomes a contentious point, and a solution must be found to avoid the adverse impact on both parties.

The Importance of Understanding Your Legal Rights

When it comes to selling a shared property, your legal rights may be unclear. It is essential to get both legal advice and family law legal paraprofessional support. Understanding your rights and the legal implications of your situation can help you make informed decisions. A legal expert can assist you in drafting a separation agreement that both you and your partner can agree with, providing a clear path forward.

Explore Your Options with Your Ex-Partner

One way to approach the issue of selling a shared property is to hold some dialogues with your ex-partner. An open discussion about the situation can help determine the most viable path forward. However, if any agreements cannot be reached, you may need to consider alternative options, such as a court application to force the sale or pursuing legal action for damages or breach of contract.

Consider the Financial Implications of a Stopped Sale

When one partner refuses to sell the house, there will be significant financial implications. You may have to continue to bear the living costs of the shared property, such as mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. It can be tough to sustain these financial responsibilities indefinitely without losing your financial stability. Hence, it is necessary to find a quick solution to avoid additional financial burden and debt accumulation.

Consult a Family Law Legal Paraprofessional

An experienced family law legal paraprofessional can help you navigate the separation process, enforce your legal rights, and connect you to the right professionals who can draft an agreement suited to your specific situation. Family law legal paraprofessionals have the experience, knowledge, and expertise to handle a wide range of family law matters, including sale of shared property and separation agreements. They offer a cost-effective way of resolving legal issues without breaking the bank.

Understand That Selling the House May Benefit Both Parties

Selling the shared property can be beneficial for both you and your ex-partner. It can help you both move on with your lives and reduce financial obligations. It also provides financial resources for both parties to purchase smaller properties and start fresh. In some cases, selling the house can be the best solution.


Resolving an issue when a partner refuses to sell shared property after separation requires a careful approach. The importance of understanding your legal rights, exploring your options, and consulting with an experienced professional cannot be overstated. While the emotional attachment to the family home can be difficult to overcome, it is essential to consider the bigger picture and the financial implications of a stopped sale. By seeking legal advice and expertise, both you and your ex-partner can find a mutually beneficial solution for moving forward and rebuilding your lives.

For more information on what to do when your ex-partner refuses to sell the shared property, click here.


Tuesday, April 23, 2024

Arizona Increases Prison Sentences for Fentanyl Dealers

Investigative Article

Increased Prison Sentences for Fentanyl Dealers in Arizona

The opioid epidemic in the United States has been a significant concern for years, with fentanyl being one of the deadliest drugs available on the black market. Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine and has caused thousands of overdose deaths. Arizona has been one of the states hardest hit by the fentanyl crisis, resulting in the recent legislative change, known as the Ashley Dunn Act, which has increased the minimum prison sentence for fentanyl dealers. This investigative article will delve into the Ashley Dunn Act and how it aims to tackle the fentanyl crisis in Arizona.

Ashley Dunn Act

The Ashley Dunn Act is a piece of Arizona legislation that targets the trafficking of fentanyl. The act increases the minimum prison sentence for fentanyl dealers from five years to ten years. The law is named after Ashley Dunn, who passed away from an overdose of fentanyl-laced heroin at the young age of 20. Ashley Dunn's mother, Jody, led the charge to change the law through the Arizona state legislature, which was signed by Governor Doug Ducey in April 2021.

How The Act Changes the Minimum Prison Sentence for Fentanyl Dealers

The Ashley Dunn Act mandates a minimum prison sentence of ten years for anyone caught with two grams or more of fentanyl. If the quantity is more significant, the sentence can range from twenty years to life in prison. The act also allows harsher penalties for those who possess large amounts of fentanyl, including a fine of up to $1 million. The act also targets those who sell drugs online and other trafficking methods, closing legal loopholes that drug traffickers use to distribute fentanyl.

How Do Arizona's Sentencing Guidelines Compare to Other States?

Arizona has some of the toughest sentencing guidelines for drug offenses in the United States. At ten years, the minimum sentence for fentanyl possession is double that of many other states. According to an analysis by the Fentanyl Safety Commission, most states have a minimum sentence of three to five years for fentanyl possession. The stricter laws aim to prevent drug dealers from targeting Arizona, which has been a popular destination for fentanyl trafficking because of its border with Mexico.

Defenses to Dealing Fentanyl

Those caught dealing fentanyl may face severe punishment, but there are defenses that can reduce the severity of the sentence. For example, a defense lawyer may argue that the defendant was unaware that they were selling fentanyl, or that the defendant is a first-time offender. A defense lawyer may also argue that the state's investigation or evidence collection was flawed, leading to an acquittal or reduction in charges.

Get Help From Federal Defense Attorney Josh Kolsrud

If you have been charged under the Ashley Dunn Act, it is imperative to get legal representation from an experienced federal defense attorney. Josh Kolsrud is a federal criminal defense attorney who has represented many clients charged with drug offenses in Arizona. Kolsrud's expertise and knowledge of federal and state drug laws make him a top choice for those facing drug charges. Kolsrud provides defense representation for a wide range of drug offenses, including fentanyl dealing.

The Bottom Line

The Ashley Dunn Act is Arizona's response to the fentanyl crisis, which aims to reduce the trafficking and distribution of this deadly drug. The act increases the minimum prison sentence for fentanyl dealers, making it one of the toughest in the nation. Arizona's strict sentencing guidelines for fentanyl possessors, coupled with Kolsrud's legal expertise, will discourage drug dealers from targeting Arizona. The Ashley Dunn Act is a step in the right direction for Arizona's fight against the opioid epidemic.

fentanyl dealers, Ashley Dunn Act

Friday, March 22, 2024

Understanding Arizona Stalking Laws: ARS 13-2923

Opinion Article

The Gray Area of Stalking Laws in Arizona

Stalking is a serious crime that affects many people, particularly women. It can cause substantial emotional distress and even fear for one's safety. In Arizona, ARS 13-2923 outlines what constitutes stalking and the penalties that come with it. But when it comes to the interpretation and application of the law, there is some gray area that needs to be addressed.

The Definition of Stalking

According to ARS 13-2923, stalking occurs when an individual intentionally or knowingly engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that causes them to fear for their safety or suffer substantial emotional distress. This conduct includes following, monitoring, or communicating in a way not authorized by law.

The Gray Area

While the definition seems clear-cut, there are instances where the line between what constitutes stalking and what doesn't can become blurred. For example, what if two individuals had a consensual romantic relationship that ended badly, and one person continues to try to contact the other despite being asked to stop? Is that considered stalking?

Furthermore, what if the alleged "stalker" insists that their actions were not meant to cause fear or emotional distress, but rather to reconcile or fix the relationship? Should their intentions be taken into account?

These questions point to the gray area in stalking laws in Arizona. While the law provides a definition, it is up to law enforcement and the courts to determine whether a particular behavior falls within that definition. This can lead to varying interpretations and inconsistent application of the law.

The Importance of Clarity

Given the serious nature of stalking and the potential harm it can cause, it is important to have clear and concise laws that leave little room for interpretation. This not only ensures that victims are protected but also that individuals are not falsely accused or punished for behavior that does not meet the legal definition of stalking.

In addition, clear laws provide guidance to law enforcement and the courts, ensuring that they are applying the law consistently and fairly.


Stalking is a complex issue that requires a careful balance between protecting victims and preserving the rights of individuals. While Arizona's stalking laws provide a good starting point, there is a need for more clarity in how the law is interpreted and applied.

By addressing the gray area in the law, we can ensure that stalking victims receive the help and protection they need, while also ensuring that individuals are not unjustly accused or punished for behavior that does not meet the legal definition of stalking.

Stalking Laws in Arizona, ARS

Tuesday, March 19, 2024

How to Navigate Citizen's Arrest Laws in Arizona

Imagine this: you are out running errands and witness someone committing a crime. You may be tempted to take matters into your own hands and make a citizen's arrest. However, before you do, it is important to understand the citizen's arrest laws in Arizona. This article will guide you through the legalities of making a citizen's arrest in Arizona.

What is a Citizen's Arrest?

A citizen's arrest is when a private individual detains someone they believe has committed a crime. In Arizona, citizens have the authority to make an arrest if they witness a misdemeanor or felony crime occurring in their presence.

When can You Make a Citizen's Arrest?

Arizona law allows citizens to make an arrest without a warrant when a public offense is committed in their presence. This includes felonies, misdemeanors, and petty offenses. However, there are some restrictions on when and how you can make a citizen's arrest.

Restrictions on Citizen's Arrests in Arizona

There are some restrictions on citizen's arrests in Arizona. A citizen's arrest can only be made for public offenses, not private offenses. Public offenses are crimes that are a threat to the public or society at large. For example, it is legal to make a citizen's arrest for a burglary, but not for a contract dispute.

Additionally, a citizen's arrest can only be made when the individual committing the crime is attempting to escape or there is a likelihood they will escape before law enforcement arrives at the scene. Moreover, the citizen making the arrest must witness the crime as it happens and must have reasonable grounds to believe that the person arrested committed the crime.

Use of Excessive Force and Citizen's Arrests

Arizona law does not authorize the use of excessive force when making a citizen's arrest. The amount of force used must be reasonable under the circumstances. Using excessive force when making a citizen's arrest can result in criminal charges for the person making the arrest.

What Happens After a Citizen's Arrest is Made?

Once a citizen's arrest is made, the arrested person must be delivered to law enforcement officials immediately and taken without unnecessary delay for processing. If the citizen who made the arrest uses excessive force or detains the individual for an unreasonable length of time, they could face civil action or criminal charges.

Consequences for False Arrests

In Arizona, if a person makes a citizen's arrest without proper legal authority, they can face criminal charges for false imprisonment, assault, and battery, and they can be held liable for any damages or injuries sustained by the person arrested.

Get Legal Help if You Need It

Making a citizen's arrest can be a risky and complex situation. If you are not sure whether to make a citizen's arrest, it is best to contact law enforcement officials instead of taking matters into your own hands. If you have been arrested or charged after making a citizen's arrest, it is important to hire an experienced criminal defense attorney who can help you navigate the legal system.

In conclusion, a citizen's arrest is allowed in Arizona, but it is vital to know what type of offenses qualify for a citizen's arrest and to make sure that no excessive force is used when making the arrest. To learn more, visit Arizona Citizen's Arrest Laws.